Design and Engineering activities may take on different features and characteristics, according to the type and definition of the Project, but one mustn’t forget that, in any case, the final target is to enable the site organization not just to procure the necessary equipment and materials, but also to carry out the construction, commissioning and start-up work smoothly and safely.
A brief description of the various possible different aspects of design and engineering activities is given below.

Basic Design

For most of industrial Plants, Basic Design is the phase in which a set of basic documents is developed, mainly including Flow Diagrams, Material and Energy Balances, preliminary Pipe and Instrument Flow Diagrams, Equipment Specifications, etc., tailored to the capacity and local conditions of a new Plant. This set of documents is prepared by a Process Licensor, or by a Company having the specific know-how. When available, it is the basis of the Process Design of a Plant.

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Front End Engineering Design

The Front End Engineering Design (FEED) is an intermediate phase of the Project implementation process, following and completing the Process Design phase, the aim of which is to better define the Project (and, in particular, the Detailed Cost Estimate), before the final go ahead for the investment.

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Detailed Engineering

The Detailed Engineering phase is the Project implementation phase in which a set of deliverables is developed, involving all the applicable technical disciplines (e.g.: civil, mechanical, piping, electrical, instrumentation, automation, telecommunications, etc.), to enable the Site organization to procure the necessary equipment and materials and to carry out the construction and pre-commissioning activities.

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